I’ve always referred to the version of Debian running on a Raspberry Pi as Raspbian and so it was until the recent 8 GB RAM Raspberry Pi was launched. But it turns out that Raspbian was an independent version of Debian created by people at raspbian.org. As they say “Note: Raspbian is not affiliated with the Raspberry Pi Foundation. Raspbian was created by a small, dedicated team of developers that are fans of the Raspberry Pi hardware, the educational goals of the Raspberry Pi Foundation and, of course, the Debian Project.”
From now on, it seems the correct name is Raspberry Pi OS and no longer Raspbian. The change was announced at the bottom of this Raspberry Pi Foundation blog post. This has something to do with the fact that Raspbian is mainly 32-bit while the Raspberry Pi OS is both 32-bit and 64-bit though the latter is still at beta. You can read more about the recent changes to Raspberry Pi OS on this blog entry.